Sunday, November 27, 2016

Unit 3. Key Words and Definitions

 Unit 3: The High Middle Ages and Feudalism

1. Three year crop rotation: Farming technique which consists in dividing the arable land into three parts. In one part they grew winter cereals, in the second part spring cereals, and the third part was left fallow.

2. Serf: Peasant who was not free, tied to the land he worked on and not allowed to leave it without the lord’s permission.

3. Sultan: Ruler or king of the Turks (Muslim state).

4. Demesne: Land that was exploited directly by the lord. It consisted of farmland, pastures and woods. It was farmed by the serfs.

5. Fiefdom: Farming land granted by a feudal lord to his vassal to provide the vassal with a source of income in exchange for his loyalty and services.

6. Tithe: One-tenth of annual produce from farming and livestock, which all peasants were obliged to give to the Church.

7. Act of Homage (Commendation Ceremony): Official act or ceremony in which a noble swore his loyalty to someone more powerful than himself.

8. Crusades: Military expeditions organized by Christians between the 11th and the 13th centuries to reconquer the Holy Land, which had fallen into Muslim hands.

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